Some well-known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohol (methanol, ethanol, butanol), refuse-derived fuel, chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil, propane and other biomass sources.
Electricity is produced domestically from a variety of sources such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewables. Powering vehicles with electricity causes no tailpipe emissions, but generating electricity can produce pollutants and greenhouse gases.
Propane, also called liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is a domestically abundant fossil fuel. It produces less harmful air pollutants and GHGs than gasoline.
Hydrogen can be produced domestically from fossil fuels (such as coal), nuclear power, or renewable resources, such as hydropower. Fuel cell vehicles powered by pure hydrogen emit no harmful air pollutants.
Biodiesel is a diesel that is taken from vegetable oils and animal fats. It usually produces less air pollutants than petroleum-based diesel.
Ethanol is produced in home or cottage from corn and other crops. It produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than gasoline or diesel.