What makes a country developed?


Criteria for what is not a developed country can be:
• people have lower life expectancy
• people have less education and literacy rate
• people have less money (income)
• women have higher fertility rate

Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as "one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment. But according to the United Nations Statistic Division There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.


The term ‘development’ has been figured prominently. In common parlance the term is used both frequently and rather casually: development studies, problems of development, developing countries, less developed countries, development cooperation, underdevelopment, development aid, development strategies, development policy and so forth. So what do we mean by ‘development’? Implicit in almost every use of the term ‘development’ is the notion that some countries and regions of the world are extremely poor, whereas other countries, representing a relatively small fraction of the world population, are very prosperous.

The discussion of development is always tied up with basic questions like: why are poor countries poor and rich countries rich? Why do poor countries lag behind rich countries in the development of their standards of living? How can poor countries become more prosperous? How can poor countries catch up with the rich countries? In this sense an important dimension of the concept of ‘development’ refers to economic growth or more precisely growth of national income per capita. Development conceived of as economic growth is a quantitative concept and basically means more of the same. Yet, even if we limit ourselves to the economic sphere, it is clear that economic development is more than economic growth alone.

Economic development refers to growth accompanied by qualitative changes in the structure of production and employment. Generally referred to as structural change of particular importance for developing economies are increases in the share of the dynamic industrial sector in national output and employment and a decrease of the share of agriculture. This implies that economic growth could take place without any economic development. An example is provided by those oil-exporting countries, which experienced sharp increases in national income but saw hardly any changes in their economic structure. Another important qualitative change is technological change: the ongoing process of change in process and product technologies, resulting in radically new modes of production and new product ranges.


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